Review for Blood Cells Test

  1. Microscopes and Cells
    1. Parts of a microscope: objective, focus knobs, slide
    2. Recognize what a cell is and identify the nucleus in cells that have them.
    3. Understand the interesting stretchy nature of the cell membrane
    4. Understand how a cell can split into two, or engulf something to form a vesicle
  2. Types of blood cells (You should be able to identify these in color pictures)
    1. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body and carbon dioxide back to the lungs
    2. Platelets are tiny cells that form scabs by gluing other cells together when signaled to do so.
    3. White blood cells all have jobs related to defending the body against germs
  3. Types of white blood cells (You should be able to identify these in color pictures)
    1. Neutrophils (the riot police)
      • Job: keep germs out of the body
      • Moves quickly toward any break in the skin; primary component of pus
      • Strategy: engulf germ, then kill it by merging its prison vesicle with a poison vesicle
    2. Eosinophils (the heavy artillery)
      • Job: attack large invaders such as parasites
      • Strategy: release lots of poison near the invader
      • Problem: poison also damages body tissue
    3. Monocytes (the detectives)
      • Job: engulf invaders or scavenge dead germs and bring them to lymph nodes for analysis
      • Often seen with empty vesicles containing digested germs
    4. Lymphocytes (the memory)
      • Job: recognize particular invaders caught by monocytes
      • Response: split into many copies of yourself that spread out in the blood to hunt down that invader
      • Strategy: don't engage enemy; just mark them to be attacked by others
      • Doctors know: inflamed lymph nodes means your body has recognized the threat and is fighting it
Remember that you are only responsible for knowing the things we learned in the first three weeks of the unit. The fourth week gave us a lot of opportunities to practice applying that knowledge, but you aren't required to remember, for example, how AIDS works or what LAD syndrome is. The thinking problems you will see on the test, like all the problems we did this week, can be solved with just the information above.